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Department of Pediatrics

Infectious Disease

Overview
Overview

The Division of Infectious Disease includes 31 faculty members, including 12 Professors, 9 Associate Professors, 6 Assistant professors and 4 Acting Instructors. The Division is committed to conducting cutting-edge research on infectious diseases relevant to children, delivering the highest quality of clinical care in the area of infectious diseases, and providing world-class education to trainees in pediatric infectious diseases.

Research: The Infectious Diseases Division currently has over 50 active grants. Our faculty are affiliated with the Center for Global Infectious Disease Research and the Center for Clinical and Translational Research at Seattle Children’s Research Institute.

Investigators in CGIDR have made significant contributions to understanding viral and bacterial pathogenesis in children and adults. Most notable findings:

 

  • Dr. Grundner discovered new functions for hundreds of proteins in the dark genomes of Plasmodium falciparum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis using chemical proteomics (Mol Cell Proteomics 2018, Cell Chem Bio 2016).
  • Dr. Sodora found that SIV infection results in immune changes and inflammation in the livers of nonhuman primates, these findings provide insights regarding how to treat liver dysfunction in HIV infected patients (PLoS Pathogens, 2018).
  • Dr. Sodora, in collaboration with Dr.Sather, found that rapid progression to AIDS in SIV infected infant macaque monkeys was associated with elevated innate anti-viral responses and impaired anti-SIV antibody responses, providing insights regarding treatment of rapid disease progression in HIV infected infants (PLoS Pathogens 2021, PMID:33961680).
  • The Kappe and Vaughan group has developed genetically engineered whole cell vaccine strains designed to protect against malaria parasite infection and has shown their safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in controlled human malaria infection trials (Science Transl Med. 2017, Jan 4;9(371). PMID: 28053159 and unpublished).
  • The Frenkel group found that during effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) a subset of HIV infected clonal cell populations produce virions at low-levels persistently over years, and when ART is stopped these clones contribute to viral rebound, indicating that despite production of viral antigens HIV infected cell clones comprising the persistent reservoir escape immune surveillance (PLoS Pathogens 2000; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32841299/). 
  • Drs. Bull and Frenkel found that during low-level viremias during ART-suppression can be caused by suppression of the cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses by T regulatory cells (Treg) and CTL escape mutations that allow these viremias to persist for years (In preparation submission Jan-Feb 2022). Understanding how the CTL response is suppressed in vivo will help us better understand how to activate this part of the immune response for HIV Cure and vaccine strategies.
  • Dr. Bull started a projects and collaboration with Dr. Efrem Lim at Arizona State University to study the interaction of the vaginal microbiome and low level genital HIV RNA shedding in Peruvian women while the plasma viral load is suppressed below the limit of detection.  This new project will be analyzed and developed for publication in early 2022 and will be further developed into grant applications.
  • Dr. Smith and Dr. Ying Zheng’s group (UW, Department of Bioengineering) used bioengineered human 3D microvessels to study how Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells adhere within the brain microcirculation (Science Advances; 2020 Jan 17;6(3):eaay7243. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aay7243. eCollection 2020 Jan. PMC6968943 and mBio; 2019. May 28;10(3). pii: e00420-19. doi:10.1128/mBio.00420-19. PMC6538777 )
  • Drs. Vaughan and Kappe showed that malaria parasite progeny fight for survival and drive out their parents during competitive blood stage growth (PLoS Genet 2019; 15(10): e1008453). 
  • The Aitchison group continues to apply systems biology approaches to infectious diseases. Most recently, in collaboration with the Sather and Debley labs at SCRI/UW and groups at The Rockefeller University they have generated and characterized a repertoire on nanobodies that are promising therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2, including variants of concern (elife, Dec 7, 2021 – in press) 
  • The Urdahl lab developed a new mouse tuberculosis (TB) model that reflects key features of human disease, providing new avenues to study TB and to test novel vaccines and therapies (Cell Host Microbe, 2020, in press).  
  • The Stuart lab identified gene expression changes in response to human infection by or vaccination against malaria, including those associated with immune protection [Rothen J. et al. (2018) PLoS One, PMCID: PMC6007927] and determined the functions of potential drug targets in multiprotein RNA processing complexes [McDermott S.M., et al. (2019) RNA, PMCID: PMC6800513] and of enzymes that control antigenic variation and coordinate numerous cellular processes in lethal trypanosome parasites. [Cestari I. et al. MCB, PMCID: PMC6336139, and Cestari, I. and Stuart, K. PLoS NTD in press}.
  • Dr. Harrington found that malaria infection during pregnancy resulted in more maternal cells (maternal microchimerism) trafficking into the fetus and that these cells were associated with increased susceptibility to malaria infection but protection from malaria disease in the offspring (Journal of Infectious Disease, 2017).
  • Dr. Rajagopal’s group found that the pigment toxin exacerbates infection due to Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and lipid analogs attenuates GBS infection (Sci Immunol 2016;1(4):aah4576; Nat Commun 2020 Mar 20;11(1):1502).
  • Dr. Ma and colleagues have developed a new forward-genetic screening tool that quantifies the consequences of transcriptional regulatory perturbations on growth and survival in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Nat Microbiol 2021, PMID: 33199862). Building upon this, Dr. Ma has been awarded an NIAID New Innovator Award to use these and other tools to study how the molecular interplay between host and pathogen controls outcomes during tuberculosis infection and treatment.  
  • The Kaushansky and Sather labs demonstrated that non-neutralizing, pre-existing antibodies can interfere with the efficacy of malaria vaccination (Vijayan and Visweswaran et al, Cell Reports).
  • Using machine learning, the Smith and Kaushansky labs demonstrated that a complex network of kinases regulate the blood brain barrier, paving the way to test whether targeting these molecules may impact a range of diseases from sepsis to cerebral malaria (Dankwa et al, Cell Chemical Biology).
  • Dr Jaspan's group found that different hormonal contraceptives can influence the vaginal microbiome and immunity in adolescents   (Nat Commun 2020 Nov 4;11(1):5578,  Clin Infect Dis 2019 Oct 23;71(7):e76-e87), and that they may also influence risk of sexually transmitted infections  (Sex Transm Infect 2021 Mar;97(2):112-117)
  • The Coler Lab processed clinical samples for the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine and developed endpoint assays for other vaccines in the pandemic pipeline with strong collaborative partnerships, these vaccines have and will continue to save countless lives. They also optimized and leveraged their TB therapy/relapse model to better evaluate therapeutic vaccine strategies with antibiotic treatment. (N Engl J Med. 2020. PMID: 32663912; PMCID: PMC7377258 and Scientific Reports. 2021. 11: 9040. PMCID: PMC8079704).

Center for Clinical and Translational Research (CCTR):

Divisional investigators in the CCTR have made significant contributions to defining the epidemiology, clinical impact, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases in  pathogens in children and adults. Notable findings:

  • Dr. Matthew Kronman participated in a clinical trial to improve antibiotic prescribing in the outpatient setting: Kronman MP, Gerber JS, Grundmeier RW, Zhou C, Robinson JD, Heritage J, Stout J, Burges D, Hedrick B, Warren L, Shalowitz M, Shone LP, Steffes J, Wright M, Fiks AG, Mangione-Smith R. Reducing Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care for Respiratory Illness. Pediatrics 2020; Aug 3:e20200038. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-0038. PMID: 32747473
  • Dr. Kronman also participated in the first national guidelines for acute osteomyelitis in children:Woods CR, Bradley JS, Chatterjee A, Copley LA, Robinson J, Kronman MP, Arrieta A, Fowler SL, Harrison C, Carrillo-Marquez MA, Arnold SR, Eppes SC, Stadler LP, Allen CH, Mazur LJ, Creech CB, Shah SS, Zaoutis T, Feldman DS, Lavergne V. Clinical Practice Guideline by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America: 2021 Guideline on Diagnosis and Management of Acute Hematogenous Osteomyelitis in Pediatrics. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2021 Aug 5:piab027. doi: 10.1093/jpids/piab027. PMID: 34350458
  • Drs. Victoria Konold, Matthew Kronman, and Scott Weissman worked to remove racist terminology around vancomycin reactions: Konold VJL, Brothers AW, Kronman M, Pak D, Bettinger B, Weissman SJ. Flushing an Offensive Term for Vancomycin Infusion Reaction from the Electronic Medical Record. Hosp Pediatr. 2021 11 (11): e317–e321. https://doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2021-005993. PMID: 34675085
  • Drs. Janet Englund, Alpana Waghmare, and Sara Vora were the first to describe infectious complications of CAR-T cell therapy in children and adolescents: Infectious Complications Following CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell Therapy for Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults. Vora SB, Waghmare A, Englund JA, Qu P, Gardner RA, Hill JA.Open Forum Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 9;7(5):ofaa121. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofaa121. eCollection 2020 May
  • Drs. Alpana Waghmare and Sara Vora were involved in creating guidance on antiviral therapy for pediatric patients with COVID-19.Multicenter Initial Guidance on Use of Antivirals for Children With Coronavirus Disease 2019/Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2.Chiotos K, Hayes M, Kimberlin DW, Jones SB, James SH, Pinninti SG, Yarbrough A, Abzug MJ, MacBrayne CE, Soma VL, Dulek DE, Vora SB, Waghmare A, Wolf J, Olivero R, Grapentine S, Wattier RL, Bio L, Cross SJ, Dillman NO, Downes KJ, Timberlake K, Young J, Orscheln RC, Tamma PD, Schwenk HT, Zachariah P, Aldrich M, Goldman DL, Groves HE, Lamb GS, Tribble AC, Hersh AL, Thorell EA, Denison MR, Ratner AJ, Newland JG, Nakamura MM.J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020 Dec 31;9(6):701-715. doi: 10.1093/jpids/piaa045.
  • Drs. Alpana Waghmare and Sara Vora were involved with creating guidance on monoclonal antibody therapy for adolescents with COVID-19: Initial Guidance on Use of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Children and Adolescents.Wolf J, Abzug MJ, Wattier RL, Sue PK, Vora SB, Zachariah P, Dulek DE, Waghmare A, Olivero R, Downes KJ, James SH, Pinninti SG, Yarbrough A, Aldrich ML, MacBrayne CE, Soma VL, Grapentine SP, Oliveira CR, Hayes M, Kimberlin DW, Jones SB, Bio LL, Morton TH, Hankins JS, Maron GM, Timberlake K, Young JL, Orscheln RC, Schwenk HT, Goldman DL, Groves HE, Huskins WC, Rajapakse NS, Lamb GS, Tribble AC, Lloyd EC, Hersh AL, Thorell EA, Ratner AJ, Chiotos K, Nakamura MM.J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2021 May 28;10(5):629-634. doi: 10.1093/jpids/piaa175.PMID: 33388760
  • Drs. Janet Englund, Alpana Waghmare, and Chikara Ogimi  discovered risk factors for community humnan coronavirus in BMT patients: Ogimi C, Xie H, Waghmare A, Oshimi MU, Mallhi KK, Jerome KR, Leisenring WR, Englund JA, Boeckh M.  Risk factors for seasonal human coronavirus lower respiratory tract infection after hematopoietic cell transplantation.  Blood Adv 2021; 5(7):  1903-14.  
  • Dr. Janet Englund worked on Pediatric COVID virology: Chung E, Chow EJ, Wilcox N, Starita LM, Shendure J, Rieder MJ, Nickerson DA, Boeckh M, Bedford T, Burstein R, Famulare M, Hughes JP, Englund JA, Chu HY.  Comparison of Symptoms and RNA Levels in Pediatric and Adult SARS-CoV-2 Infections in the Community Setting.  JAMA Pediatr 2021;  online June 11, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.2025.    
  • Dr. Janet Englund studied COVID vaccine reactions in pregnant women: Kachikis A, Englund JA, Singleton M, Covelli I, Drake AL, Eckert LO. Short-term Reactions Among Pregnant and Lactating Individuals in the First Wave of the COVID-19 Vaccine Rollout. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Aug 2;4(8):e2121310. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.21310. PMID: 34402893.
  • Dr. Janet Englund participated in CDC sponsored surveillance for influenza in US hospitals: Tenforde MA, Campbell AP,  Michaels MG, Harrison CJ, Klein EJ, Englund JA, Selvarangan R,  Halasa NB, Stewart LS, Weinberg GA, Williams JV, Szilagyi PG, Staat MA, Boom JA, Sahni LC,  Singer MN, Azimi PH, Zimmerman RK, McNeal MM, Talbot HK, Monto AS, Martin ET, Gaglani M, Silveira FP, Middleton DB, Ferdinands JM, Rolfes MA.  Clinical influenza testing practices in hospitalized children and adults at United States medical centers, 2015–2018.  J Pediatr Infect Dis Soc 2021; 10.1092/jpids/piab096/6395204  (Oct.13). 
  • Dr. Zerr led a trial through the Children’s Oncology group assessing the efficacy of CHG in preventing CLABSI in children with cancer. Zerr DM, Milstone AM, Dvorak CC, Adler AL, Chen L, Villaluna D, Dang H, Qin X, Addetia A, Yu LC, Conway Keller M, Esbenshade AJ, August KJ, Fisher BT, Sung L. Chlorhexidine gluconate bathing in children with cancer or those undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A double-blinded randomized controlled trial from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer. 2020 Oct 20;. doi: 10.1002/cncr.33271. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 33079403. 
Clinical Programs
Clinical Programs

The ID division provides an inpatient consultation service and ambulatory clinics. The clinical team includes 18 faculty members and three advanced practice providers.  

We have special clinical programs in pediatric HIV, pediatric transplant infectious diseases, multidrug resistant organisms, and complex infections in patients with CF. The ID division also supports clinicians in the WWAMI area who have ID-related questions through rapid access to telephone consultations

The Pediatric HIV program at Seattle Children's Hospital cares for HIV-infected children and adolescents from all over the state of Washington as well as from eastern Idaho.  We also provide consultation to providers in Alaska caring for HIV-infected children. We collaborate with the Maternal Infant Care Center at UWMC in caring for HIV-exposed but uninfected infants.  

The Pediatric Infectious Disease section works on transplant-related disease prevention and treatment in collaboration with the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and pediatric transplant services at Seattle Children’s Hospital.  Joint efforts in establishing guidelines, protocols, and individualized antibiotic plans are developed and reviewed with multiple services and divisions, including: Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Immunology, Solid Organ Transplant services (Cardiology, Nephrology, Liver, and Surgery services), and Pharmacy, as well as Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Control.  A guidebook for approaches to the prevention and treatment of infections in this high-risk population has been developed with the cooperation of these services and made available to the ID service and all health care providers participating in the care of these patients .Pediatric Transplant ID collaborates with the transplant services through direct patient care, discussions, lectures, and patient care conferences.

Infectious Diseases faculty provide medical direction to the hospital’s Infection Prevention and Antimicrobial Stewardship programs.

Fellowship Program

First formed in 1979, the University of Washington’s Pediatric Infectious Diseases fellowship training program has had a consistent record of success in training leaders focused on basic or translational research pertaining to infectious diseases that affect children and has graduated a number of fellows who subsequently took on academic leadership positions at their institution such as Division Chief of Pediatric Infectious Diseases or Department Chair of Pediatrics. Approximately 85-90% of our graduates have remained in academic medicine or worked with governmental institutions including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the National Institutes of Health.

Our three-year program typically trains 2 fellows per year in clinical pediatric infectious diseases and basic or translational research, with the goal of helping fellows launch academic research careers. Our fellows can select research mentorship from among the many outstanding researchers across the University of Washington, including in the Departments of Internal Medicine, Global Health, or Immunology. Further details on the program can be found here.

 

Research Programs
Research Programs

Christine Anterasian, MD 

Acting Instructor, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Washington/Seattle Children’s Hospital 

 

Dr. Anterasian’s research is focused on tuberculosis and understanding the innate immune response to infection.  She is interested in identifying novel pathways in host defense against M. tuberculosis that can inform the development of host-directed therapeutics. Additionally, Dr. Anterasian is interested in developing new diagnostics for infant tuberculosis and studies infant genetics and cytokine responses to tuberculosis and BCG vaccine. Dr. Anterasian research combines systems biology, genetics, and immunoassays approaches to advance our understanding of the host immune response to tuberculosis. 

Dr. Anterasian also attends on the inpatient Infectious Diseases service at Seattle Children’s Hospital. Outside the hospital, she enjoys running, hiking, skiing, and spending time with her partner (and three dogs!). 

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=anterasian%2C+C


 

John Aitchison, PhD

Co-Director, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children’s Research Institute, Professor, Pediatrics, Adjunct Professor, Biochemistry, University of Washington.  

 

Dr. Aitchison combines the fields of systems cell biology and infectious disease research to understand fundamental aspects of cellular organization and function and how pathogens disrupt and control these cellular behaviors.  His earlier work focused on the development of systems biology approaches that included high throughput ‘omics approaches and computational biology to integrate and interpret large-scale data.  His more recent work builds on these advances in the context of infectious diseases to understand the battle between pathogens and host cells and systems, and mechanisms by which pathogens evade host defense.  Pathogens under study include yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria, and viruses.  

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=aitchison+jd

Marta Bull, PhD
Research Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Research Institute.

Persistence of HIV at mucosal sites may provide a significant HIV reservoir even in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART) and might pose a barrier to a cure. Dr. Bull has been studying factors that promote persistence and replenishment of tissue reservoir. These studies include defining immunological microenvironments at mucosal sites, assessing viral dynamics, and the contribution of chronic herpes viruses to the maintenance of HIV reservoirs. Co-infection with other chronic viruses, particularly herpesviruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, CMV and EBV) are very common in HIV-infected individuals. Much of Dr. Bull’s work has focused on HIV in the female genital tract where she investigates whether the immune response to these infections maintains HIV tissue reservoirs due to antigen specific CD4+ T cell proliferation with a subsequent increase in reservoir size. Her research evaluates the role of CD4+ T regulatory cells in HIV and is interested in the role of this population of cells in the context of vaccines. Given Dr. Bull’s expertise in mucosal tissues and the immunologic environment in mucosal sites, she would be interested in industry collaborations focused on gaining a better understanding of the impact of and interplay between systemic vaccines and mucosal sites.     

MyNCBI: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/myncbi/marta.bull.1/bibliography/public/

 

Rhea Coler, M.Sc, Ph.D.

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine; Senior Investigator, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research (CGIDR); Adjunct Professor, Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Member Brotman Baty Institute

 

Dr. Coler has focused on three main areas: 1) Advancing tuberculosis (TB) vaccine platforms and models, 2) Blood processing and clinical immunology secondary endpoint and exploratory assays for VTEU, IDCRC and Biotech-funded trials to evaluate vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, Schistosoma mansoni,  and Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 3) Nontuberculous mycobacteria vaccine development

Dr. Coler’s research has contributed to the invention of the M72/AS01e and ID93+GLA-SE – lead TB vaccine candidates. Dr. Coler’s clinical trials include prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for a variety of infectious disease pathogens including SARS-CoV-2, influenza and schistosomiasis.

Link to publications: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/myncbi/1bks5Qubun7saH/bibliography/56150380/public/?sort=date&direction=ascending 

 

Outside of the University, Dr. Coler enjoys spending time with her family and friends, cooking, traveling and scuba diving.


 

Janet Englund, MD

Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital. 

Dr. Englund’s research interests include the study of the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of viral respiratory diseases in children, pregnant women, and immunocompromised hosts. She studies new viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 with the Seattle Flu Study, as well as respiratory vaccines and novel methods of antiviral therapy for respiratory viruses including influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Dr. Englund has been a coinvestigator in maternal immunization studies with influenza vaccines in Nepal and RSV vaccines in Seattle.  As a Clinical Associate at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, she is actively involved in transplant-related protocols with Drs. Michael Boeckh, Chikara Ogimi, and Alpana Waghmare studying the prevention, treatment, and outcome of respiratory viral diseases in transplant recipients of all ages. Dr. Englund’s research group at Seattle Children’s Hospital is part of the New Vaccine Surveillance Network of the Centers for Disease Control since 2010, participating in respiratory and gastrointestinal viral surveillance in collaboration with Dr. Eileen Klein, Pediatric Emergency Department. Dr. Englund and her research team are actively involved in studies of new respiratory vaccines including COVID-19 vaccines and vaccine effectiveness, including vaccines for the prevention of RSV in infants, children, and pregnant women. Studies run by Drs. Englund and Waghmare include evaluation of the Pfizer BioNTech vaccine for children ages 6 months-11 years, and immunocompromised children ages 2-17 years.  Her group is also studying methods to diagnose and characterize viral respiratory diseases including SARS-CoV-2, including serological evaluation.  Dr. Englund is a frequent speaker at national and international meetings, and active in national and international organizations. She is past member of the WHO Influenza working group, and a current member of the Influenza Working Group and SARS-CoV-2 Diagnosis Working Group of the Infectious Disease Society of America. A full listing of her publications can be found here https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/myncbi/janet.englund.1/bibliography/49608210/public/?sort=date&direction=ascending

Lisa M. Frenkel, MD
Professor, Pediatrics and Laboratory Medicine, Adjunct Professor, Global Health and Medicine

The Frenkel Group performs translational and basic laboratory research focused on HIV drug resistance (DR) and HIV persistence. We aim to understand the establishment and dynamics of DR reservoirs and whether testing for HIV DR prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) modifies outcomes (Lancet HIV, 2020; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31818716/) or impacts mother-to-child-transmission of HIV (Clin Infect Dis, 2021; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34467974/). We have participated in the NIH International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) since 1989 and serve as the primary HIV-DR genotyping lab for all US sites and the reference lab for international IMPAACT studies and consult with the CDC and UNAIDS.  With UW Bioengineers, we develop inexpensive methods to assess HIV drug resistance (EBioMedicine 2019; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31767540/). Current HIV DR projects focus on: (1) HIV DR of non-B subtypes to the globally recommended ART (tenofovir + lamivudine + dolutegravir (TLD)), and with abacavir instead of tenofovir in young children; and (2) the development of a economical assay to rapidly detect “virologic failure” (i.e., HIV RNA load >500-1000 copies/mL plasma), and in specimens with failure, detect HIV DR at cost of reagents ≤$10.00/test in <2 hours; supported by two R01 and an IMPAACT award. Furthermore, our research on mechanisms underlying HIV persistence despite effective ART has introduced novel concepts to the field: (1) That low-level viremias during ART are primarily comprised of virions with identical env and pol sequences suggesting production by clones of infected cells (Journal Virology, 2005; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181593/); (2) That cells with identical viral sequences appear to increase during ART, further supporting clonal proliferation of cells with provirus (Journal Virology, 2013; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3554159/); (3) That multiple cells have proviruses with identical HIV integration sites into genes, proof of clonal cell populations, which increase  during suppressive ART and which tend to persist in genes that control immune functions, the cell cycle or cancers (Science, 2014; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25011556); and (4) That during effective ART a subset of HIV infected clones persistently produce virions at low-levels, including variants that contribute to viral rebound when ART is stopped, suggesting that clones that actively produce virus escape immune surveillance and serve as HIV reservoir of persistent infection capable of repopulating the host if ART is suspended (PLoS Pathogens 2000; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32841299/). Current projects on HIV persistence include studies of: (1) HIV effects on the outcome of human papilloma virus infections in Ugandan women with uterine cervical dysplasia; (2) differences in HIV reservoirs of South African children and their mothers; and (3) identification of HIV reservoirs that rebound upon suspension of ART and the factors that select for persistence of these reservoirs; supported by three R01 awards.

 

Benjamin Gern, MD

Acting Assistant Professor of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital.

Dr. Gern’s research focuses on the characterizing spatially organized host-pathogen interactions, with a particular focus on the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), a leading cause of infectious mortality. He uses a combination of cutting-edge quantitative imaging approaches and physiologic murine models to characterize the factors dictating Mtb granuloma structure, and immunosuppressive factors limiting immunity within these spaces. His work has identified the highly localized role of TGFβ in the inhibition of T cell persistence and function within Mtb-infected tissues, which has implications for the development of host-directed therapies. To follow up on these results, Dr. Gern is currently characterizing additional effects of TGFβ within Mtb-infected tissues and pursuing potential therapeutic candidates in a mouse model in collaboration with Dr. Grundner within the division. Additional ongoing projects include altering bacterial and host genetics to investigate determinants which influence pulmonary granuloma organization, as well as characterizing a model of murine concomitant immunity to improve our understanding of post-primary tuberculosis, which is the most common form of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, and for which no adequate animal models currently exist. With an ongoing collaboration with Dr. Stephen Cose in Uganda, he plans to test observations learned in these mouse models in human lung tissues from across the TB spectrum, including asymptomatic individuals, an unparalleled resource in the antibiotic era. Within the division, he has ongoing collaborations with Drs. Grundner, Harrington and Urdahl.

 

Christoph Grundner, PhD 

Associate Professor, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Research Institute

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains the most deadly bacterial pathogen, and rampant drug resistance requires renewed efforts to find new and better therapies. At the core of Mtb’s success as a pathogen lies its ability to sense and adapt to host cues, in particular through sensor protein kinase signaling. The Grundner lab maps these signaling pathways and determines their role in Mtb physiology. These studies provide fundamental insight into Mtb biology and identify new targets for therapeutic interference. Because the Mtb Ser/Thr kinases are related to eukaryotic kinases, we repurpose the extensive pharmaceutical resources developed for targeting human kinases for use against Mtb. A major bottleneck in Mtb research on every level is the large number of genes with unknown function in the Mtb genome. Determining protein function is currently exceedingly slow and proceeds one protein at a time. To scale functional annotation to the level of other -omics approaches, we use activity-based protein profiling combined with mass spectrometry towards high-throughput identification of functions for these unknown proteins. These new tools allow probing of even the most divergent enzyme space and provide a more complete understanding of the genomic dark matter of Mtb.

 

Whitney Harrington, MD, PhD

Assistant Professor of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Washington School of Medicine; Principal Investigator, Center for Global Infectious Diseases, Seattle Children’s Research Institute.

 

Dr. Harrington’s research focuses on intergenerational immune interactions and their effect on susceptibility to infection during pregnancy and infection. In particular, her lab investigates the role of maternal microchimerism (maternal cells acquired by the fetus in utero) in fetal and infant immune development, early vaccine responses, and susceptibility to infection. Current projects in her lab include isolating and phenotyping maternal cells from pregnancies affected and unaffected by infection, determining whether infants acquire a maternal graft with immunologic memory, and investigating whether the maternal cells affect the development of immune responses against malaria, HIV, and CMV in the infant. She has also launched a number of SARS-CoV-2 related projects, including the identification and characterization of Spike-specific T cells in breastmilk. She collaborates with Drs. Aitchison, Englund, Frenkel, Gern, Jaspan, Sather, and Sodora within the division.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/myncbi/whitney.harrington.1/bibliography/48255522/public/?sort=date&direction=ascending 

Rafael E. Hernandez, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s

Dr. Rafael Hernandez’s research focuses on understanding the pathogenesis of mycobacteria. He studies both Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), which cause lung or other infections in people with cystic fibrosis and other underlying medical conditions. His focus is on developing better treatment strategies for both tuberculosis and NTM infections. One aim of his work is to understand how mycobacteria interact with cells of the immune system to promote their own survival and how this interaction may make them more resistant to killing by antibiotics. He is also focused on developing better treatment strategies for NTM, including using a modeling approach to identify multidrug regimens which are more effective against NTM. To conduct these investigations Dr. Hernandez employs a combination of bacterial genetics, microbiology, cellular model and zebrafish animal model experimental approaches. This work will help to facilitate development of more effective and shorter treatments for both tuberculosis and NTM disease. Dr. Hernandez works closely with Dr. Sherman in the UW Department of Microbiology and Dr. Ma in Pediatrics. He also serves as the director of the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Isolate Core at Seattle Children’s Hospital, which distributes bacterial isolates and performs microbiology testing to facilitate CF microbiology research both locally and nationally.

 

Heather Jaspan, MD, PhD
Associate Professor of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Washington School of Medicine; Adjunct Associate Professor, Global Health, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle Children’s Research Institute.

Dr. Jaspan’s research group seeks to better understand the interplay between host microbial and immunological factors that impacts susceptibility to infectious diseases in infant and adolescents from sub-Saharan Africa. Our overarching goal is to pinpoint mechanisms by which dynamic community structures of commensal bacteria regulate immunology at mucosal surfaces and how that ultimately mitigates or promotes susceptibility to infectious disease. We additionally seek to elucidate the role that maternal HIV infection has on these commensal communities, and the resultant effects of HIV exposure on infant immunity immunology and vaccine responses. We utilize clinical, preclinical and computational approaches to address these topics.

Stefan Kappe, Ph.D.
Professor and Associate Vice Chair for Basic Research, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine; Adjunct Professor, Department of Global Health, University of Washington School of Medicine. Associate Director, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children’s Research Institute.

Dr. Kappe’s research focuses on the biology, immunology and vaccinology of obligate intracellular Plasmodium parasites, which cause malaria, and on the development of interventions that prevent malaria infection. Dr. Kappe is particularly interested in the parasites mosquito stages and pre-erythrocytic stages including sporozoite and liver stage biology, immunology and vaccine design. Both, the sporozoite stage but particularly the elusive liver stage, are challenging to work with and have remained poorly studied.  The Kappe laboratory has pioneered functional genomics studies of both sporozoites and liver stages and has thus laid the groundwork for a systems approach to their analysis. The lab works with rodent malaria models and the human malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Dr. Kappe have made major contributions to the field by elucidating the molecular underpinnings that regulate sporozoite infectivity for the mammalian host, factors that are critical for parasite liver infection and key parasite and host factors that are critical for intrahepatocytic liver stage growth. He has also more recently contributed major findings in the area of host responses to liver stage infection and immunity to malaria parasite liver infection. Finally, Dr. Kappe has pioneered the design of genetically engineered, attenuated parasites for vaccination, which are tested in animal models but also in early phase human clinical studies called controlled human malaria infections. Dr. Kappe partners with biotech for manufacturing of these attenuated vaccine strains and further clinical development.

Alexis Kaushansky, PhD
Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine; Adjunct Associate Professor, Global Health; Principal Investigator, Seattle Children’s Research Institute; Member Brotman Baty Institute; Member Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine

Dr. Kaushansky’s research focus is host responses to infection. Her laboratory is particularly interested in how pathogens of global importance alter the biology of their hosts to ensure their own survival.  One major effort in the Kaushansky laboratory focuses on how Plasmodium parasites, the causative agent of malaria, alter two major environments after infection: (1) the liver, which is the site of asymptomatic infection and (2) the blood brain barrier, whose breakdown causes the most severe form of malaria pathogenesis, cerebral malaria. By identifying key host regulators of infection and pathogenesis, the Kaushansky lab has identified targeted interventions that can eliminate infection.  In addition to uncovering key regulators of malaria infection, research from the Kaushansky lab has also highlighted similarities and differences between the host response to infection by the divergent parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi. A better understanding of these similarities and differences could lead to broadly applicable interventions that target multiple infections with a single regimen. Acknowledging that the “right tools for the job” are often not available when studying infectious disease, the Kaushansky lab has ongoing efforts that aim to develop technologies that overcome barriers to studying infectious disease. These tools include (1) computational tools to model host and drug responses to infection, (2) robotic systems to automate laborious laboratory tasks and, (3) the development of organs-on-chip systems in collaboration with bioengineers to study infections in vitro in a realistic environment. She collaborates broadly with scientists throughout the University of Washington and internationally.  Within the division, she has ongoing research projects with Drs. Sather, Smith, Aitchison and Rajagopal. A list of research publications can be found here.

 

Victoria Konold, MD
Assistant Professor of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Washington School of Medicine; Associate Medical Director, Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, Seattle Children’s Hospital; Director, Quality Improvement, Division of Infectious Diseases.

 

Dr. Konold’s research focuses on the intersection of informatics, quality improvement and antimicrobial stewardship. She investigates ways to leverage the electronic health record to 1. Nudge provider behaviors toward guideline-centered care, and 2. Extract data from the electronic health record to answer questions about quality, equity and to better characterize the success of antimicrobial stewardship interventions. Examples of this work include re-purposing EHR auto-correct functionality to provide in-the-moment feedback encouraging replacement terminology for historically racist medical jargon, and deploying an electronic checklist helping clinicians to better characterize penicillin allergy labeling during allergy history taking.

 

Her clinical time includes inpatient Infectious Diseases consultations and the outpatient Infectious Diseases clinic. In addition, she directs QI for the division and is the Associate Medical Director of the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program at Seattle Children’s Hospital. Outside of the hospital, she enjoys growing flowers in the garden, rediscovering her love of cycling, swimming and dancing, and spending time exploring the PNW with her partner and their tiny adventure dog

 

Matthew "Boots" Kronman, MD, MSCE

Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s; Program Director, Pediatric Infectious Diseases fellowship training program; Associate Medical Director of Infection Prevention, Seattle Children’s Hospital.


Dr. Kronman’s primary research interest is antimicrobial stewardship, using the tools of pharmacoepidemiology to understand current patterns of antimicrobial use, identify the unintended consequences of antimicrobial overuse, and ultimately find ways to improve the overall quality of antimicrobial prescribing for various conditions. His clinical time is split between inpatient Infectious Diseases consultations and the outpatient Infectious Diseases Clinic. He works closely with Dr. Urdahl, the Research Director and Training Grant Principal Investigator, to coordinate all aspects of research training for our fellows. Within the Division, he collaborates with Drs. Zerr, Weissman, and Konold on projects related to infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship. Outside the Division, he collaborates with researchers at other institutions on projects related to antimicrobial stewardship in both inpatient and outpatient settings. His publications can be found here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/myncbi/1lsUkL-a7okQs/bibliography/40353058/public/?sort=date&direction=ascending


 

Shuyi Ma, PhD

Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research; Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington; Adjunct Assistant Professor, Pathobiology Program, Department of Global Health.

 

Dr. Ma’s research focuses on studying the complex molecular interplay between host, pathogen, and drugs during infection and treatment, focusing on tuberculosis.  Dr. Ma’s laboratory is using drugs as chemical tools and computational modeling as a framework to understand how changes in the network of interacting genes in the bacteria and the host decide the balance of fates between these organisms during infection. By better understanding the behavior of these biological networks during infection and treatment, Dr. Ma’s laboratory seeks to uncover new biological insights that will inform the rational design of combinatorial therapies that maximize efficacy, minimize toxicity, and mitigate drug evasion by simultaneously targeting both host and pathogen.

Dr. Ma’s bibliography: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/myncbi/1JKOVckGwAdQ9/bibliography/46501788/public/

Ann Melvin, MD
Clinical Director, Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital

Dr. Melvin is director of the Pediatric HIV program at SCH. Her research interests are in the antiretroviral management of HIV disease in children and prevention and management of complications of HIV treatment. Dr. Melvin is an investigator in the NIH-sponsored International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials network. She is a Co-chair of the DHHS Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children: Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection. She is also the Faculty lead for the Research Recruitment Service for the Institute for Translational Health Sciences of the University of Washington. She collaborates with Drs. Frenkel, Englund and Vora.

URL:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/myncbi/ann.melvin.1/bibliography/48115937/public/?sort=date&direction=ascending

 

Peter J Myler, Ph.D.

Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Research Institute and Director of the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID).

The Myler laboratory makes extensive use of genome-scale approaches, such as for genome (re-)sequencing, mRNA profiling (RNA-seq) and chromatin immunoprecipitation using sequencing (ChIP-seq), to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying transcription and regulation of gene expression during Leishmania differentiation. We are particularly interested in elucidating the role of epigenomic histone and DNA modifications (including the novel DNA base J) in these processes.   For the past 20 years, we have been actively involved in structural genomics and Dr. Myler is currently PI and director of the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID), which is funded under a contract from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The mission of SSGCID is to use X-ray crystallography, Cryo-electron microscopy and NMR spectroscopy to solve the structure of proteins targets in emerging and re-emerging infectious disease organisms, primarily to facilitate development of new therapeutics using structure-based drug design.

 

Tanya Parish, PhD

Professor. Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine.

Principal Investigator. Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children’s Research Institute.


Dr Parish’s research is focused in two main areas: (i) understanding the biology of the global pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis; and (ii) discovering and developing novel drugs for tuberculosis that are effective at curing drug sensitive and drug resistant tuberculosis. Her fundamental research addresses mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, the mode of action of antibiotics and the investigation of essential cellular processes in mycobacteria. Her applied work encompasses a range of early-stage drug discovery including assay development and high throughput screening, drug target identification and validation, and medicinal and synthetic chemistry. 

 

Complete List of Published Work in MyBibliography

The Parish Lab

Lakshmi Rajagopal, PhD
Professor of Pediatrics, Adjunct Associate Professor of Microbiology and Global Health, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Research Institute

Dr. Rajagopal is a Professor of Pediatrics, Adjunct Professor of Microbiology and Global Health at the University of Washington in Seattle, WA. Her laboratory is located at Seattle Children’s Research Institute. Her research interest is to understand virulence mechanisms of human pathogens and their interactions with the host. Her laboratory currently focuses on understanding how virulence factors of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) contribute to stillbirth, preterm birth and neonatal infections. Studies from her laboratory showed that the molecular basis for GBS hemolysis is the ornithine rhamnolipid pigment and increased pigment expression exacerbates GBS virulence. Dr. Rajagopal has received multiple grants from the National Institutes of Health for her GBS research and serves as a permanent member of the Bacterial Pathogenesis Study Section. Recently, Dr. Rajagopal is also involved in efforts to understand how the Zika virus causes fetal injury during pregnancy. The goal of the research in the Rajagopal laboratory is to ultimately translate the research findings into therapeutic measures that can prevent infections during pregnancy.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/myncbi/lakshmi.rajagopal.1/bibliography/41150840/public/?sort=date&direction=descending

D. Noah Sather, Ph.D.

Associate Professor, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Research Institute.

 

Dr. Sather’s research focuses on the development of vaccines to induce protective antibody responses against disease causing pathogens.  A guiding principle of this work is to understand infection-induced antibody responses to serve a natural prototype to guide vaccine development.  The two main areas for research are HIV-1 and malaria.  His HIV-1 work has helped to define how broadly neutralizing antibodies develop during infection, and his current efforts are focused on understanding the kinetics, dynamics, and evolution of B cell responses to vaccination with HIV-1 Envelope proteins.  His malaria work spans two species of malaria-causing parasites: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.  The major areas of this work include identification of new vaccine candidates, optimization of protective responses, and understanding how pre-existing immunity influences vaccine outcomes.  Publications: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=noah+sather&sort=date

Sherilyn Smith, MD

Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s.

 

Dr. Smith’s interests are in medical education, teaching and curriculum development. She is currently the Clinical Skills Learning Specialist for the University of Washington School of Medicine and the Chief Academic Officer for Aquifer (an educational nonprofit).

 

Joseph D. Smith, PhD
Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Research Institute

 

Dr. Smith’s research is focused on understanding malaria pathogenesis and new approaches to treat vascular dysfunction from hyperinflammatory injury. One focus in his laboratory is to understand how Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells bind to the endothelial lining of different microvascular beds and how this interaction leads to vascular inflammation and leak. His laboratory uses a combination of field-based and laboratory studies to investigate severe malaria. Another research focus is using systems-based approaches to investigate host signaling mechanisms that regulate endothelial barrier properties and evaluating new therapeutic approaches to treat vascular injury. A complete list of Smith lab publications can be found here. 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/myncbi/joseph.smith.1/bibliography/41158270/public/?sort=date&direction=descending

 

Donald Sodora, PhD

Professor, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children’s Research Institute, Professor, Pediatrics, Adjunct Professor, Dept. Global Health, University of Washington. 

Dr. Sodora’s studies have evaluated the interplay between the host and viral infections. Over the past 20 years the focus of the laboratory has primarily been on understanding transmission and disease progression during HIV infection.  These studies have included infants, identifying changes within the infant immune system that may influence whether an exposure to HIV results in a successful infection. More recently, the laboratory has begun to assess host-virus interactions during SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) infections. The long-term goal of the ongoing studies is to identify novel approaches for development of vaccines or therapeutic approaches to prevent the spread and disease complications resulting from a viral infection.

Studies in the Sodora laboratory include both animal models and human cohort studies.  

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/myncbi/donald.sodora.1/bibliography/public/

Caleb Stokes, MD, PhD
Acting Instructor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital

I am interested in the mechanisms of brain injury caused by infection or inflammation within the central nervous system (CNS). My undergraduate and graduate training was in basic and developmental neurosciences; understanding neural circuits and nervous system dysfunction are some of my primary scientific motivations. As an infectious diseases clinician and translational researcher my career goal is to find ways of enhancing immune protection and limiting the detrimental effects of inflammation in neuronal circuits. I am currently studying how the innate immune system helps control Zika virus infection, using induced neural progenitor cells which are derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Using this system, we are able to derive all of the major cell types present in the developing brain, which has allowed us to identify differences in the ways that neural progenitors, neurons and glia respond to viral infection. I am actively engaged in teaching and mentoring activities through Seattle Children’s hospital and my basic science work. I am firmly committed to increasing the number and impact of underrepresented minorities and women in biomedical research and improving equity in medicine. 

NIH bibliography: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/myncbi/1t3Q9m88doE56/bibliography/public/

 

Ken Stuart, PhD

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Research Institute 

 

Dr. Stuart’s research is focused on protozoan pathogens and the diseases that they cause. These include malaria which is caused by Plasmodium parasites, three diverse diseases caused by related Trypanosomatid and Leishmanial parasites, and Covid caused by SARS CoV2. His lab investigates Human immune responses to malaria and Covid vaccination and infection in order to aid vaccine development. He also investigates fundamental molecular and cellular processes of trypanosomatid parasites to elucidate novel molecular functions and identify potential drug targets. Dr. Stuart is well known for his groundbreaking studies of RNA editing, a novel fundamental genetic process. He led parasite genomics and drug discovery consortia and currently leads a multi-institution U19 research program on human immune responses to HIV, malaria and TB, which is part of the NIH Human Immunology Project Consortium. He has served on NIH study sections and USAID and WHO advisory groups and currently serves on the NIAID council.

 

Kevin Urdahl, MD, PhD

Professor of Pediatrics and Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine

Principal Investigator, Center for Global Infectious Diseases, Seattle Children’s Research Institute.

 

Dr. Urdahl’s research is focused on understanding the immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and seeks to inform the rational design of an effective vaccine. He uses advanced immunologic approaches in the mouse Mtb model to identify innate and adaptive mechanisms that promote immunity against Mtb, as well as those that restrict immunity. Recently, his lab has developed a new mouse model, in which mice are infected with an ultra-low dose of Mtb (1-3 founding bacteria), that better recapitulates several features of human TB. They are currently using this model to gain new insights into Mtb immunity and pathogenesis, and also trying to develop this model further as a platform for pre-clinical testing of TB vaccine and therapeutic candidates. Dr. Urdahl is the PI of Cascade IMPAc-TB, a large NIH consortium that seeks to identify mechanisms of immunity against Mtb by integrating animal and human studies. Through this consortium, he collaborates with three clinical sites in Africa and his research in mice is shaped by this crosstalk with human TB research

 

Ashley Vaughan, BSc, PhD
Assistant Professor, University of Washington School of Medicine

Assistant Professor, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children’s Research Institute

 

Ashley received his PhD from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and studies the disease malaria, caused by Plasmodium parasites. He has showed the importance of the parasite’s fatty acid synthetic pathway for sporozoite and liver stage maturation. He also researches how to elicit the most protective immune response after vaccination with genetically attenuated parasites. Ashley has led significant advances in the use of human-liver chimeric mouse models in studying malaria. This includes complete liver stage development and the transition to blood stage malaria in the mouse for the human malarias Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. He has also used this mouse model for the creation of experimental Plasmodium falciparum genetic crosses, a significant advance that will aid in our understanding of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance. More recently, Ashley has been using the human-liver chimeric mouse model to study the commitment dormant liver stage hypnozoite formation in Plasmodium vivax as well as hypnozoite persistence and activation. Ashley continues to be fascinated by basic parasite pre-erythrocytic biology – the mosquito and liver stages of the life cycle and to this end uses rodent malaria parasite transgenesis to understand how the parasite interacts with its vector and host during sporozoite and liver stage development. Ashley collaborates with Drs. Kappe, Sather and Aitchison at the Center for Global Infectious Disease Research. Ashley also collaborates both nationally and internationally with malaria experts including Dr. Jetsumon Sattabongkot at Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, a leading expert in the field of P. vivax research.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/myncbi/ashley.vaughan.1/bibliography/public/ (100 publications).

Surabhi (Sara) Vora, MD, MPH
Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital.

Dr. Vora’s primary research area of interest is infections in immunocompromised hosts, especially viral and fungal infections in patients with primary immune deficiency and those who have received CAR T-cells and hematopoeitic cell transplants. She is an investigator for the International Pediatric Fungal Network as well as the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Transplant Research Network and has been involved in multidisciplinary efforts to develop local and national guidance for pediatric patients with COVID-19 infections.  Her clinical time is split between the inpatient infectious diseases service and outpatient clinic. In addition, she serves as a consultant to the Seattle Children’s Hospital Clinical Effectiveness (CE) Program, assisting with the development and implementation of standardized clinical pathways of care. Dr. Vora is Co-Director of the CE program’s Research and Writing Team, which works to disseminate learnings from clinical pathways to quality improvement literature. Dr. Vora also serves as a coach for pediatric residents.

 

Alpana Waghmare, MD
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital
Assistant Professor, Vaccine and Infectious Diseases Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center

Dr. Waghmare’s research is focused on respiratory viral infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised adults and children. She is interested in the factors that influence disease severity and progression, with the intent to identify diagnostic, prevention, and treatment strategies. Dr. Waghmare’s focus to date has been on the impact of human rhinovirus, the most common virus detected from respiratory specimens in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. She is working to identify clinical, viral, and host factors that may serve as biomarkers for disease severity. Viral factors she is evaluating include viral load in blood and respiratory secretions, strain type, and shedding duration. Host factors are being evaluated through host cytokine responses and whole blood gene expression profiles. These determinants of disease will serve as biomarkers for risk stratification and can be used diagnostically to predict poor outcome, thus defining patients who warrant aggressive treatment strategies. Additionally, these studies will provide important insight into biologic pathways during infection and define possible targets for intervention. Dr. Waghmare’s group is investigating similar markers of disease progression for other respiratory viruses, including parainfluenza viruses and respiratory syncytial virus. Since the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, Dr. Waghmare has been evaluating the natural history of infection in a longitudinal surveillance cohort study of individuals at high risk of infection. The goals of the study include understanding the incidence rate, viral shedding duration and re-infection rates as well as defining the kinetics of antibody and T-cell responses in infected individuals.

Dr. Waghmare is also involved in clinical trials for novel antivirals and immune based therapies for the treatment of respiratory viral infections in children and adults.

Thor Wagner, MD
Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital

 

Dr. Wagner’s research is focused on understanding and treating chronic viral infections. His primary focus is pediatric HIV, which accounts for 10% of all HIV deaths. Dr. Wagner has been focused on the mechanisms that allow HIV to persist despite prolonged antiretroviral treatment. This research led Dr. Wagner to focus on treatment strategies that target HIV-infected cells. Currently Dr. Wagner is developing anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, which are also resistant to HIV, as a potential strategy to cure HIV. The lab is currently optimizing this approach in vitro and testing CAR T cells in small and large animal models. His lab has also started to explore cell therapy for other chronic viral infections.

 

Scott Weissman, MD

Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine; Medical Director, Antimicrobial Stewardship Program Seattle Children’s Hospital.


Until 2013, Dr. Weissman’s lab developed and used PCR- and sequence-based molecular typing techniques to characterize clinical Enterobacterales isolates gathered through active and passive surveillance by NIH-funded multicenter studies at freestanding children’s hospitals, the NICHD Neonatal Research Network, and by local and state Departments of Health in Washington, California, Minnesota, and Oregon. These molecular studies shed light on the regional dynamics of antibiotic resistant pathogens, a complex mix of indigenous and imported clones (including E coli ST131 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258) that circulate through healthy and vulnerable populations alike, both in community and healthcare settings, and in the environment as well.  Dr. Weissman currently focuses on leveraging clinical microbiology data to inform antimicrobial stewardship interventions for immunocompromised hosts in the hospital setting and works with the University of Washington’s Center for One Health Research to develop surveillance strategies and systems that provide for inference of molecular dynamics from pooled clinical microbiology data.

 

Danielle Zerr, MD, MPH
Division Chief and Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine; Affiliate Investigator, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; Medical Director of Infection Prevention, Seattle Children’s Hospital.


Dr. Zerr’s research has focused on two main areas: (1) Defining the epidemiology of viral pathogens in healthy children and immunocompromised hosts and (2) describing the epidemiology and defining effective prevention strategies for healthcare-associated infections. Dr. Zerr’s research has contributed to defining the natural history of primary infection with human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B), a virus that infects most people by age 3 years.  Her work has also helped define the epidemiology and disease associations of HHV-6B reactivation following transplantation. Dr. Zerr recently led a trial through Children’s Oncology Group to determine whether bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate reduces central line-associated bloodstream infections in children with cancer.  

Her clinical time includes inpatient Infectious Diseases consultations and the outpatient Infectious Diseases clinic. In addition, she is the Medical Director for the Infection Prevention Program at Seattle Children’s Hospital. Outside the hospital, she enjoys hiking and cross-country skiing whenever she can find someone to go along. She also loves spending time with her young adult children, spouse, and pups.

 

Training Programs
Training Programs

The overall goal of our training programs is to train individuals for careers in academic pediatrics who will be skilled investigators and clinical subspecialists. Clinical training is intensive during the first year; our institutions have large patient bases, providing a rich clinical exposure over the six-twelve months of intensive clinical training. Subsequent years are devoted primarily to investigation, with clinics at sufficient frequency to develop a longitudinal perspective on patient management and to maintain clinical skills.

For more information, please visit the Pediatrics Infectious Disease Fellowship webpage

 

Division Chief

Danielle Zerr, MD

Division Chief and Professor of Pediatric Infectious Disease Affiliate Investigator, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Medical Director of Infection Prevention, Seattle Children’s Hospital

Faculty

Alan Aderem, PhD

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Co-Director, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research

John Aitchison, PhD

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research

Marta Bull, PhD

Research Associate Professor Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research

Janet A. M.D. Englund, MD

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital.

Lisa M. Frenkel, MD

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Co-Director, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research

Benjamin Henry Gern, MD

Acting Instructor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital

Christoph Grundner, PhD

Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research

Whitney E Harrington, MD, PhD

Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital

Rafael E. Hernandez, MD, PhD

Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital

Heather B Jaspan, MD, PhD

Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics and Global Health, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital

Stefan Kappe, PhD

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research

Alexis Kaushansky, PhD

Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research

Victoria Konold, MD, FAAP

Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Associate Medical Director, Antimicrobial Stewardship Program

Matthew P. Kronman, MD, MSCE

Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Fellowship Program Director, Pediatric Infectious Diseases

Ann J. MD Melvin, MD

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Clinical Director, Division of Infectious Diseases

Jon Mosser, MD, MPH

Assistant Professor

Peter Myler, PhD

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research

Lakshmi Rajagopal

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Adjunct Associate Professor of Microbiology and Global Health

Noah Sather, PhD

Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research

Joe Smith, PhD

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research

Sherilyn Smith, MD

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital. Co-Director of Pediatric Clerkship

Don Sodora, PhD

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research

Caleb Stokes, MD, PhD

Acting Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital

Kenneth Stuart, PhD

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research

Indi Trehan, MD, MPH, DTM&H

Associate Professor

Kevin B. Urdahl, MD, PhD

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research

Ashley Vaughan, PhD

Research Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research

Surabhi (Sara) Vora, MD, MPH

Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital

Alpana Waghmare, MD

Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Research associate, Freed Hutchison Cancer Research Center

Thor A. Wagner, MD

Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital

Scott J. Weissman, MD

Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Medical Director, Antimicrobial Stewardship Program

Danielle Zerr, MD

Division Chief and Professor of Pediatric Infectious Disease Affiliate Investigator, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Medical Director of Infection Prevention, Seattle Children’s Hospital

Contact Information
Contact Information

Seattle Children's Research Institute
1900 9th Ave.
Box 359300; MS MA.7.226
Seattle, WA 98101
(206) 987-2073